# Code and Catholicism: Beeminding Praying and Integrating Beeminder on iOS

Wednesday, December 10, 2014
By Pedro Paulo Oliveira Jr.

Last week Leah Libresco blogged about beeminding rituals. This week we’re continuing the Catholic theme with a guest post by veritable Renaissance man, Pedro Paulo Oliveira Jr. [1] Pedro Paulo has a popular iPhone app for praying the rosary and has used the Beeminder API to include beeminding one’s praying as part of the app. It’s the holy grail, so to speak, of making one’s app sticky! In this post Pedro Paulo describes how it works, first for users of the app, and then for iOS developers who may want to similarly integrate Beeminder. There’s also an insightful philosophical/behavioral-economic detour about intrinsic, extrinsic, and transcendent motivation. (See also the open source Beeminder iPhone app.)

App development is a very rewarding activity. I’m not talking about the monetary aspect, although it maybe rewarding on that front too, but the impact you can have in other people’s lives. With more than 5 million people using our apps I feel we have the responsibility to constantly improve their experience.

Our popular Electronic Rosary app helps people to pray the Rosary with voice guidance, beautiful images, and variable pacing. It’s especially useful in places or situations where you’d have trouble keeping count or need a companion.

#### “In 2011, instead of praying a special devotion, I wrote code that would help me pray better in the future.”

Actually I developed it for myself. Praying the rosary while commuting, I’d constantly lose track of the Hail Marys. I wrote the first version in 9 days, during a time of the year numerous Catholics live the devotion of the novena to the Immaculate Conception. In 2011, instead of praying a special devotion, I wrote code that would help me pray better in the future. Noticing that the experience had been positive I donated the code to the company I work for so they could build it into a product and make it available to other people. Now more than 10k users pray the rosary daily using Electronic Rosary for iOS.

One feature users asked for constantly was a mechanism to help them to pray this devotion every day. In iOS, we can set daily notifications but the downside of notifications is guessing correctly what time to display the notification. That’s where Beeminder comes in.

I was introduced to Beeminder by Leah Libresco’s Unequally Yoked. I strongly recommend it. Even if you don’t agree with everything the author says you can’t dispute her honesty and intelligence in exposing ideas. Leah has used Beeminder for multiple purposes from getting to sleep on time to writing a book (Arriving at Amen).

## Motivation, Spiritual Practice, and Beeminding Your Way to the Rosary

In the previous post, Leah Libresco asks and answers a question. It’s a very interesting consideration but I’d like to dissent somewhat.

Prayer is supposed to come from the heart, so is there something weird about graphing it and setting up my own penalties if I don’t measure up? My answer is, yes, it’s a bit weird, but so is most of my prayer life. I’m a convert (…)

My answer is no, it’s not weird. It’s the way, with variations, a fair share of people successfully lead a life of prayer. Romans 7:18-19 illuminates why it’s not weird: “For I do not do the good I want, but I do the evil I do not want.”

#### “As Leah Libresco describes, it can happen the other way around, using extrinsic motivation (Beeminder) as a tool to reach a transcendent goal.”

A model of motivation I first heard from IESE Business School, expands the extrinsic, intrinsic model to accept a third category: transcendent. The transcendent in this case would be the “prayer is supposed to come from the heart”, the intrinsic “I need to pray more, as I understand it is important for my spiritual life,” and Beeminder (or other tools Catholics have used for centuries, ring a bell?) the extrinsic. Therefore, in this layered framework, each level supports the adjacent in order to achieve an ultimate goal.

Inserting a poetic touch, I cannot resist the temptation to quote Henri Guillaumet which Antoine de Saint-Exupery describes in the book “Wind, Sand and Stars”:

Tu résistais aux tentations. « Dans la neige, me disais-tu, on perd tout instinct de conservation. Après deux, trois, quatre jours de marche, on ne souhaite plus que le sommeil. Je le souhaitais. Mais je me disais: ‘Ma femme, si elle croit que je vis, crois que je marche. Les camarades croient que je marche. Ils ont tous confiance en moi. Et je suis un salaud si je ne marche pas’. »

You resisted temptation. “Amid snow,” you told me, “a man loses his instinct of self-preservation. After two or three or four days of tramping, all you think about is sleep. I would long for it; but then I would say to myself, ‘If my wife still believes I am alive, she must believe that I am on my feet. The boys all think I am on my feet. They have faith in me. And I am a skunk if I don’t go on’.”

Guillaumet used his transcendent drive (“the concern about the future of his wife”) to enable his intrinsic motivation (“find an elevated place to die, so his body could be located and insurance claim easier”) to empower the extrinsic (“take one step after another so he could rest”), in order to overcome the urge to sleep in the snow. However, on numerous occasions, as Leah Libresco described, it happens the other way around, using extrinsic motivation (Beeminder) as a tool to reach a transcendent goal.

## How Beeminder Works in Electronic Rosary

If you plan to use Electronic Rosary to beemind your praying habits, here’s what you do.

In the sliding menu, select the Beeminder icon.

If you have not authorized the app to access your Beeminder account yet, you’ll be redirected to Beeminder’s website to get the appropriate permission. After granting access you’ll be redirected to Electronic Rosary.

The next step is to select among your goals which one the app will update at the end of the rosary.

Now we are ready to go. For every rosary you finish, the app will send a +1 to your Beeminder goal and you’ll see a popup confirmation.

Now I’d like to share how easy is to integrate Beeminder with any iOS app.

## iOS SDK and Beeminder: A Brief How-To

The Beeminder API documentation covers the first step of registering your app.

### Authentication

To get the user’s goals and to add a datapoint to a particular goal you must first authenticate using OAuth2. In the iOS SDK it’s easy to do that without any external library:

static NSString * BackendBaseURL = @"https://www.beeminder.com/";
static NSString * OAuth2Path     = @"apps/authorize";
static NSString * ClientId       = @"client_id=mysupersecretwithbeeminder";
static NSString * RedirectURI    = @"redirect_uri=iterco://beeminder-callback";
static NSString * ResponseType   = @"response_type=token";

- (void) beginOAuth
{
if([[NSUserDefaults standardUserDefaults]
stringForKey:@"beeminder_token"] == nil)
{
NSString * auth = [BackendBaseURL stringByAppendingFormat: @"%@?%@&%@&%@",
OAuth2Path,
ClientId,
RedirectURI,
ResponseType];
[[UIApplication sharedApplication] openURL:[NSURL URLWithString:auth]];
}
}


The redirect_uri you should set at CFBundleURLSchemes in the Info.plist of your project.

Safari will redirect you back to your app and you’ll listen for it in your App Delegate and store the access_token to access Beeminder on behalf of the user:

-(BOOL) application:(UIApplication *)application handleOpenURL:(NSURL *)url
{
NSLog(@"%@",url);
if([url.host isEqualToString:@"beeminder-callback"]) {
NSArray * comp = [url.query componentsSeparatedByString:@"&"];
for(NSString * st in comp) {
NSArray * twoComp = [st componentsSeparatedByString:@"="];
if(twoComp.count == 2) {
if([twoComp[0] isEqualToString:@"access_token"]) {
[[NSUserDefaults standardUserDefaults] setObject:twoComp[1]
forKey:@"beeminder_token"];
[[NSUserDefaults standardUserDefaults] synchronize];
} else
[[NSUserDefaults standardUserDefaults] setObject:twoComp[1]
[[NSUserDefaults standardUserDefaults] synchronize];
}
}
}
}
return YES;
}


### Requesting the Goals

Since Beeminder’s API is pure JSON I suggest a library like AFNetworking to make things easier.

- (void) refreshGoalsWithCompletion: (void (^)(BOOL, NSInteger))completion
{
id success = ^(AFHTTPRequestOperation * operation, id JSON) {
NSMutableArray *l_goals = [NSMutableArray arrayWithCapacity:[JSON count]];
for(NSDictionary * goal in JSON) { [l_goals addObject:goal]; }
_goals = [l_goals copy];
completion(YES, 200);
};
id failure = ^(AFHTTPRequestOperation *operation, NSError *error) {
completion(NO, [operation.response statusCode]);
};
NSDictionary *params = @{ @"access_token" : [self getToken] };
[_client getPath:@"/api/v1/users/me/goals.json"
parameters:params success:success failure:failure];
}


In the above function _client is a variable of our helper class initialized as:

_client = [AFHTTPClient clientWithBaseURL:
*[NSURL URLWithString:@"https://www.beeminder.com/"]];
[_client registerHTTPOperationClass:[AFJSONRequestOperation class]];
[AFNetworkActivityIndicatorManager sharedManager].enabled = YES;


The last step after the user selects which goal will be updated when he prayed the rosary is to add a datapoint.

- (void) addOneUnitToGoal:(void (^)(BOOL, NSInteger))completion
{
id success = ^(AFHTTPRequestOperation * operation, id JSON) {
completion(YES, 200);
};
id failure = ^(AFHTTPRequestOperation *operation, NSError *error) {
completion(NO, [operation.response statusCode]);
};
NSDictionary *params = @{
@"access_token": [self getToken],
@"comment": @"Added by Electronic Rosary by Netfilter",
@"value": @"1"
};

NSString * path = [NSString stringWithFormat:
@"/api/v1/users/me/goals/%@/datapoints.json",
[self getSelectedGoal]];
[_client postPath:path parameters:params success:success failure:failure];
}


We’ll be releasing in the next few weeks the full code of the helper class to integrate Beeminder in your iOS app (we need to refactor the code decouple it from our libraries, although a work in progress is already available).

## Thank You, Leah and Beeminder!

To thank both Beeminder and Leah Libresco, I’ll be making Electronic Rosary [2] free for download for the next five days. Maybe you can use it to pray for me once in a while. :)

## Footnotes

[1] Pedro Paulo graduated with a degree in Computer Engineering from PUC-Rio. He also graduated, years later, with a PhD in Medicine from USP. He spends most of his time at Netfilter but some days he teaches, advises students, and does medical research (Alzheimer’s and Autism) at the hospital. In his spare time he reads, plays soccer, and organizes volunteer work sometimes involving improvised medicine. And fun fact: he was one of the first Lua programmers.

[2] There are versions of Electronic Rosary for Windows Phone and Android as well, but they are far less polished than the iOS version.

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• scruffmcbuff

I only see one version for android and its .99. I am interested in this as I have tried it manually but wish it was automatic.

• Pedro Paulo Jr.

Sorry, but Android Store doesn’t allow us to flip from paid to free.

• Clayton Hughes

Some trivia: rosaries aren’t just Catholic. Most mainstream churches have a tradition of using the rosary as well. Certainly Orthodox and Anglican traditions, and it’s not unheard of in Lutheranism and Methodism.

• Sean

I beemind my daily meditation practice, and had a similar conflict. In Buddhism, non-attachment to worldy things like money is heavily emphasised, so using money to bribe myself to meditate seemed like a conflict.

In practice though it didn’t work out like that and I mostly use it to keep track of my meditation. What ‘bribes’ me to meditate is the knowledge that it makes me a better person. So far that has been enough, and it’s pretty much the only goal I feel (fairly) confident about not-ever-derailing. Although, today is going to be an emergency day :o In my defense I am ill, and meditating for 1 hour+ each day is taxing.

Enough of my rambling. The point is that you’re not the only one using Beeminder to help yourself stay motivated on the path toward a spiritual goal. As long as we’re not doing our prayer/meditation (delete as appropriate) *because* there is money on the line instead of because we know it to be the correct thing to do, and as long as the fact that there is money on the line doesn’t leak into our respective practices, I don’t see much conflict.

As an aside, some schools of Buddhism use rosaries too.

• Chiara

I knew Beeminder today. Yesterday began here in Rome the IV Convegno Europeo di Pastorale Giovanile. The Pope has sent us a message in which he spoke precisely what I see here in Leah and Pedro: <>

It is very important to see learned and Catholic people, we are missing it.
Do not know if the blog would pass me the contact of Leah or Pedro to find out more about their experiences with reason and faith with the United States youth.

• Chiara

I knew Beeminder today. Yesterday began here in Rome the IV Convegno
Europeo di Pastorale Giovanile. The Pope has sent us a message in which
he spoke precisely what I see here in Leah and Pedro: “You can help young people to realize that faith is not opposed to reason, and so accompany them to become protagonists joyful evangelization of their peers.”

It is very important to see learned and Catholic people, we are missing it.

Do not know if the blog would pass me the contact of Leah or Pedro to
find out more about their experiences with reason and faith with the
United States youth.

I don’t know why my other comment had the text mixed up

• http://beeminder.com Daniel Reeves

We can put you in touch! I’ll point them to these comments or get in touch with me directly (dreeves@beeminder.com).

• Chiara

I send you the email with my contact. I would like to ask them how they do to have this kind of logical reasoning while having faith and how not to be bullied by the colleagues in the University. It may be a prejudice of me but I think the United States Universities are at the same time the best in the world and strongly anti Catholic.
Italy is very Catholic but we are feeling now this prejudice of the intellectuals, mainly in the North, against our faith and the youngsters are afraid or feel inferior.

• Pedro Paulo Jr.

I don’t know if I can be useful for you because I don’t live in the US. I’m from Brazil and unfortunately the scholarly debate in my country, although improving, is far below what you’ll find in US and Europe. The vanilla student has limited access to high-level interlocutors and the Catholicism’s challenges here are quite less intellectual.

Visit the blog indicated in the post: Unequally Yoked. You’ll find there a debate welcoming place with enlightened people. I suggest you start reading there. Other sites with less debate but also helpful are ConversionDiary.com hieropraxis.com

Anyway, Daniel has my contacts. Enjoy the event in Rome!

• mbork

Wow. I knew that taking over the world was on the Catholic agenda, but I had no idea it’s going on right now.

Joking aside, this (I mean both Leah’s and Pedro’s posts) is exactly what I’m doing. (Even the “while commuting” part, though now, during winter, it’s more difficult; for me, commuting comprises – among others – a 30-50-minutes walk through woods/parks, which is a very nice opportunity to pray.) In fact, the quote from the St. Paul’s Letter to Romans was one of the very first things I though about when reading about “akrasia”. Just in my case, it’s not lectio divina (though I’ll have to try that finally), but just today’s readings and the Rosary. In fact, I tried quite a few things in the past (reminder to myself: try beeminding the Breviary some day), and they didn’t work (well, they sort of did, but only for a short period of time). Beeminder really did it for me. (For reference: here’s my goal page https://www.beeminder.com/mbork/prayer ; as you can see, I decided for a rather conservative 5 times a week prayer; the Mass doesn’t count towards this goal.)

What is interesting here, in my case it’s not really money that’s motivating (or: not only money). My graph is really nice and continuous, and breaking that would make me really unhappy. (Plus, I’ve got one thing less to be ashamed of during confession, but this is minor, since there are plenty of those anyway.)

BTW, I did use an applet for the Rosary (on Android), but eventually gave up. The traditional one (string+wooden beads) has really great user interface, and the only feature it lacks is a “save” function (which may be actually considered a feature, not a bug).

Final thought: just a curiosity concerning gamification (which – despite Daniel’s reservations – is one of the facets of Beeminder). In Catholicism, we have a well-established and serious tradition of gamifying our rituals, see e.g. the classic example: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Friday_Devotions . It seems that God knows how a human being works (which is no surprise, since He created us). (Notice that it’s XVII century: we’ve been doing gamification *way* before it was cool!) So beeminding one’s prayers seems to me to fit very well into the Catholic way of thinking (which is basically realism – see the definition of akrasia again).

• Pedro Paulo Jr.

Are you sure Orthodox tradition use rosaries too? I thought they didn’t.

• neurojapa

Hi Pedro,
Congratulations for this amazing app.
Indeed, the integration with beeminder seems very promising.
Actually, I am very curious to see how this commitment will change the habits and behavior in this case of rosary.
moreover, do you think the level of improvement is correlated with the penalty amount?

All the best

• Clayton Hughes

I worked with an Orthodox(-by-culture) man who would frequently run his fingers over what I would call a rosary (string of beads).

Bishop Kallistos mentions it very briefly in _The Orthodox Church_: “As a help in reciting [the Jesus P]rayer many Orthodox use a rosary, differing somewhat in structure from the western rosary; an Orthodox rosary is often made of wool, so that unlike a string of beads it makes no noise.” (quoted here, and elsewhere: http://www.tlig.org/en/prayers/jesusprayer/ )

The Orthodox Church of America website says basically the same thing (that it’s not the same as the Catholic one), but falls on the side of saying seems to fall on calling it “prayer beads” rather than a rosary.

Seems like two ways of saying the same thing, to me.

http://oca.org/questions/romancatholicism/the-rosary
For that matter, the “rosaries” in other traditions aren’t exactly the same as the Roman Catholic ones, either. I was using it more in the general sense of a meditative prayer aided by counting beads.

• Pedro Paulo Jr.

hummm, neurojapa is a nickname only one friend could have picked :D

I don’t have access to the raw data but I guess @dreev:disqus maybe can help you with that. I don’t know the privacy issues around Beeminder but maybe there’s a way to make a correlation analysis.

Yes, I believe penalty amount has a direct influence over commitment (unless the user cheats, like fast forwarding the Rosary).

So if you are the neurojapa I really think you are maybe we can design a study using this tool. ;)

• http://beeminder.com Daniel Reeves

We can give you anonymized data! Least we can do. dreeves@beeminder.com

• José Antonio

Just a small tip to the ones who will be using this code, it uses AFNetworking 1.x. In AFNetworking 2.0 the AFHTTPClient has been replaced by AFHTTPRequestOperationManager / AFHTTPSessionManager. The pod spec to that version is pod ‘AFNetworking’, ‘~> 1.3.3’

• Pedro Paulo Jr.